While it is not necessary to study the Vedas to understand and use Ayurveda, it is important to understand the spiritual background of Ayurveda. The Buddhists have used Ayurveda with their own spiritual background, as have the Jains and the Sikhs and other groups in India and beyond. Yet all forms of philosophy of India share the same basic principles that are in harmony with the spiritual background of Ayurveda as a whole.
These can be summarised as follows:
There is a fundamental truth or reality, a state of pure consciousness or pure awareness that is beyond word and thought, in which there is peace, bliss, compassion and liberation. To reach that is the goal of all life.
Life is essentially a state of suffering and this is caused by the ego or the principle of selfishness. The ego sets in motion a stream of action or karma that ties us to the process of rebirth or transmigration in which is repeated sorrow.
To eradicate this suffering it is necessary to negate the ego and silence the mind, as the ego is a function of the mind in its state of disturbance. This involves going beyond fear, desire and anger, the emotions that keep the mind most disturbed.
For this end certain ethical values must be followed like truthfulness, humility and non-violence. For this aim the main practice is Yoga and meditation. This goal is not a personal goal but part of the liberation of all life and so should be done for the unity and good of all and not just for our personal benefit.
A disturbance or imbalance of the biological humours in the body contributes to this disturbance of the mind and so harmonising the body can contribute to this process of liberation.